Grigori Perelman is a Russian mathematician. Grigori Perelman is famous for solving the Poincare Conjecture.

## Background

Grigori Perelman was born in Leningrad, former Soviet Union. Leningrad is now Saint Petersburg where he currently resides. Grigori infamously turned down the most prestigious award in mathematics, The Millennium Prize. The Millennium Prize grants up to $1'000'000 to mathematicians who solve one of the Millennium Problems. Perelman also turned down The Fields Medal 8 years prior.

## The Millennium Prize

The Millennium Prize is given to mathematicians who solve one of the 7 Millennium Problems. The 7 Millennium Problems are 7 of the most difficult unsolved problems in mathematics. Grigori Perelman is the first mathematician to solve a Millennium Prize Problem.

- P vs. NP Problem.
- Riemann Hypothesis.
- Yang–Mills and Mass Gap.
- Navier–Stokes Equation.
- Hodge Conjecture.
- Poincaré Conjecture.
- Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture.

It took Perelman 8 to 9 years to work on the solution for the Poincare Conjecture and 8 years for researchers to approve his work.

## The Poincare Conjecture

The Poincare Conjecture was first proposed by Henri Poincare in 1904. The Poincare Conjecture derives from more advanced mathematic fields such as topology and geometry. In straightforward terms the conjecture questions whether it is mathematical possible to include all enclosed shapes under a similar gender belonging to spheres. Having solved the conjecture, it is difficult to foresee what implications Perelman's findings may have in future. It may be at least 100 years before we benefit from its application in science, technology and cryptography. Cryptography is the science of writing and solving codes.

### The Shape of The Universe

Proof of the Poincare Conjecture has important implications for the way mathematicians understand the Universe. Mathematicians have for a long time been fascinated by the shape of the Universe and the nature of her dimensionality. Is the Universe a sphere as widely believed? Or is the Universe donut shaped? Perhaps the Universe has several 'holes', sometimes called pretzel knots.

### The 4th and 5th Dimension

The original Poincare Conjecture is concerned with the nature of the sphere in four dimensions. We exist in the 3rd dimension, but in mathematics it is possible to understand infinite dimensions. The 4th and 5th dimensions are invisible and unknown, and yet at the same time the 4th and 5th dimensions are within human comprehension when understood mathematically. The 4th dimension might be the realm in which we think and the 5th dimension might be the realm in which we feel.

## Social Recluse and Hummanitarian

Grigori Perelman famously turned down a one million dollar prize award in favour of a humble and impoverished lifestyle. He later stated that if the proof is "correct" then "nothing else is needed".

Grigori did not gel with other members of the maths community. Some mathematicians argue that he did not get the credit he deserved for his thesis, it took over 8 years for it to be endorsed by the maths community for example. Other mathematicians, such as Richard Hamiliton believed that his work had contibuted to at least 50 per cent of the final resolution presented by Perelman.

Perelman currently lives alone. It has been reported that he has quit mathematics preferring instead a quiet life out of the spotlight.